The OER Knowledge Cloud makes use of cookies. By continuing, you consent to this use. More information.
The State of OA: A large-scale analysis of the prevalence and impact of Open Access articles
Piwowar​​, Heather · Priem​​, Jason · Larivière, Vincent · Alperin, Juan Pablo · Matthias, Lisa · Norlander, Bree · Farle, Ashley

PublishedAugust 2017
Type of workPre-print
JournalPeerJ Preprints
Volume 5, Issue e3119v1, Pages 1-34

ABSTRACT
Despite growing interest in Open Access (OA) to scholarly literature, there is an unmet need for large-scale, up-to-date, and reproducible studies assessing the prevalence and characteristics of OA. We address this need using oaDOI, an open online service that determines OA status for 67 million articles.

We use three samples, each of 100,000 articles, to investigate OA in three populations: 1) all journal articles assigned a Crossref DOI, 2) recent journal articles indexed in Web of Science, and 3) articles viewed by users of Unpaywall, an open-source browser extension that lets users find OA articles using oaDOI.

We estimate that at least 28% of the scholarly literature is OA (19M in total) and that this proportion is growing, driven particularly by growth in Gold and Hybrid. The most recent year analyzed (2015) also has the highest percentage of OA (45%). Because of this growth, and the fact that readers disproportionately access newer articles, we find that Unpaywall users encounter OA quite frequently: 47% of articles they view are OA. Notably, the most common mechanism for OA is not Gold, Green, or Hybrid OA, but rather an under-discussed category we dub Bronze: articles made free-to-read on the publisher website, without an explicit Open license.

We also examine the citation impact of OA articles, corroborating the so-called open-access citation advantage: accounting for age and discipline, OA articles receive 18% more citations than average, an effect driven primarily by Green and Hybrid OA. We encourage further research using the free oaDOI service, as a way to inform OA policy and practice.

Keywords bibliometrics · libraries · open access · open science · publishing · scholarly communication · science policy · scientometrics

RefereedNo
RightsCopyright© 2017 Piwowar et al.LicenceThis is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, reproduction and adaptation in any medium and for any purpose provided that it is properly attributed. For attribution, the original author(s), title, publication source (PeerJ Preprints) and either DOI or URL of the article must be cited.
DOI10.7287/peerj.preprints.3119v1
URLhttps://peerj.com/preprints/3119/
Export optionsBibTex · EndNote · Tagged XML · Google Scholar



AVAILABLE FILES
3119.pdf · 1.9MB24 downloads



Viewed by 46 distinct readers




CLOUD COMMUNITY REVIEWS

The evaluations below represent the judgements of our readers and do not necessarily reflect the opinions of the Cloud editors.

Click a star to be the first to rate this document


POST A COMMENT
SIMILAR RECORDS

Open is not forever: a study of vanished open access journals
Laakso, Mikael; Matthias, Lisa; Jahn, Najko
The preservation of the scholarly record has been a point of concern since the beginning of knowledge production. With print publications, the responsibility rested primarily with librarians, but the shift towards ...
Match: Matthias, Lisa; open access

Panel on open library, scholarship and learning at Athabasca University
Anderson, Terry; Ives, Cindy; Elliott, Colin
AUSpace: Building an effective institutional repository to support research communities and open access. AUSpace is Athabasca University’s (AU) digital content repository. Its goal is to preserve and disseminate AU ...
Match: libraries; open access

OA Diamond Journals Study
Bosman, Jeroen; Frantsvåg, Jan Erik; Kramer, Bianca; Langlais, Pierre-Carl; Proudman, Vanessa
Context From June 2020 to February 2021, a consortium of 10 organisations undertook a large-scale study on open access journals across the world that are free for readers and authors, usually referred to as "OA diamond ...
Match: bibliometrics; open access

Open content: From walled gardens to collaborative learning
England, Ashley
The 2009 Horizon Report for Australia and New Zealand lists Open Content as one of the key emerging educational technologies in the next two to three years. While Open Content appears to be relatively straightforward it ...
Match: libraries; open access

Publishing in discipline-specific open access journals: Opportunities and outreach for librarians
Tomaszewski, Robert; Poulin, Sonia; MacDonald, Karen I.; Kaspar, Wendi Arant; vanDuinkerken, Wyoma
Open access (OA) journals promote the opportunity for peer-reviewed journal articles to be freely accessible. In recent years, the number of OA journals has exploded in all disciplines. Previous studies have identified ...
Match: open access; publishing

Fifty shades of open
Pomerantz, Jeffrey; Peek, Robin
Open source. Open access. Open society. Open knowledge. Open government. Even open food. The word “open” has been applied to a wide variety of words to create new terms, some of which make sense, and some not so ...
Match: open access; open science

The status quo bias and the uptake of open access
Cantrell, Melissa; Collister, Lauren
In this paper we argue that the framing of open access through language adopted by a variety of stakeholders serves to inhibit the uptake of open access publishing through the mechanisms of complexity and cognitive ...
Match: open access; publishing

Open: The philosophy and practices that are revolutionizing education and science
Jhangiani, Rajiv; Biswas-Diener, Robert; Kwantlen Polytechnic University, CA; Noba Project
Affordable education. Transparent science. Accessible scholarship. These ideals are slowly becoming a reality thanks to the open education, open science, and open access movements. Running separate—if ...
Match: open access; open science

cOAlition S: Making Open Access a reality by 2020: A declaration of commitment by public research funders
Schiltz, Marc; Moedas, Carlos; European Research Council; Science Europe
What is cOALition S? On 4 September 2018, 11 national research funding organisation, with the support of the European Commission including the European Research Council (ERC), announced the launch of cOAlition S, an ...
Match: open access; publishing

BOAI 15 survey report
Shockey, Nick; Joseph, Heather; Hagemann, Melissa
The 15th anniversary of the Budapest Open Access Initiative provided an excellent opportunity to take stock of global progress toward open access and to gauge the main obstacles still remaining to the widespread ...
Match: open access; scholarly communication